Cruise

This phase is used to make the aircraft follow a position-based route created by the user in the Mission menu. This is the principal use of this guidance algorithm, but it can also be used to make the aircraft go to a certain location (e.g waypoint) without indicating the full route, thus being a guidance used to command a movement by position. All the parameters that define the cruise guidance are detailed.

Veronte Configuration - Cruise Guidance Menu 1

Cruise Guidance Menu (I)

  1. Section. This option allows the user to select the first path to be flown to. The user should first enable this option, click on logo1 and then click on the desired waypoint to bo the first-of-the-route.

  2. Set height mode. Height mode indicates how the aircraft will perform the route whein it comes to the waypoints’ altitude. There are three possible height modes:
    • 2D mode: the vehicle performs the path keeping the altitude it had when it enetred the phase containing this guidance.

    • 2.5D mode: the vehicle performs the path respecting the altitude of all waypoints. When entering the phase that contains this guidance, the aircraft will go from its current position and altitude to the first waypoint of the route following a 3D trajectory.

    • 3D mode: the vehicle performs the path following a two-step procedure, first it gains the the altitude to the next waypoint; second, it flies horizontally to the goal-waypoint’s location [this height mode is reserved for Multicopters or Hybrid platforms].

  3. Arcade position/speed transition In Arcade mode the trajectory generated (position) is not followed and instead the aircraft moves according to the commanded speed. The horizontal and vertical speed parameters serve as the upper-thresholds for when the aircraft’s guidance should be position-based, even in Arcade mode. This parameters are mainly useful for platforms like multicopters.

  4. Set speed: this option sets the desired aircraft speed during the manoeuvre.
    • Cruise: sets the velocity modulus of the commanded velocity.

    • Waypoint reach indicates the speed at which the platform will reach the waypoints of the path, i.e. it will travel along the path with the speed indicated in the option Cruise and then it will decelerate or accelerate to the speed indicated in here.

    • Defined speed type can be IAS (indicated airspeed) or Ground speed. Normally, IAS is used for airplanes and Ground speed for multicopters.

    • Deceleration: maximum allowed acceleration/deceleration to meet the desired velocity.

Veronte Configuration - Cruise Guidance Menu 2

Cruise Guidance Menu (II)

  1. Axes controller: a horizontal and vertical position PID controller is defined here. Its purpose is to adjust the platform’s actual trajectory to the desired one. When clicking on Horizontal or Vertical, a pop-up window will open where the control gains should be introduced – for more information on the latter subject check the Loop menu. In the horizontal-position PID (see image below), North-East current position of the aircraft is compared to the desired position. The output of the PID controller is going to be a ground speed in the North-East plane, which translates into a desired lateral and front ground speeds in body axes. The same logic applies for the vertical-position PID.

Position PID

Horizontal Position PID

Guidance-generated Variables

Cruise guidance generates a three-dimensional trajectory, as well as a set of variables which can be used in the control loops – check Loop menu.

The list of variables is the following:

  • Desired position.

  • Track position.

  • Track state (current patch, last patch).

  • Desired latitude, desired longitude, desired WGS84, desired MSL, desired AGL.

  • Desired velocity.

  • Desired front groundspeed, desired lateral groundspeed, desired velocity down.

  • Desired tangential acceleration.

  • Desired IAS.

  • Guidance north error.

  • Guidance east error.

  • Guidance down error.

  • Desired body velocities.

  • Desired velocities north, east, down.

  • Desired heading, FPA and bank.

  • Route-guidance distance - tangential component.

  • Route-guidance distance - horizontal component.

  • Route-guidance distance - perpendicular component.